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Hrcbalc anb Iprovincial Morbs





Hamorary Memtber qf the Rtyai Irish Aerndttmy ; Corret^OHdimf itembtr ^Uu Rt/yat Socitty 9/ Northern Antiquaries, ^tke Seei*^ ^Anhqnaries o/Seotiand, q/'ths Archte^ogiaU Scciety ^Stcchhoim, and the Xeaie Aeademia di Firznme ; Honorary Msmbsr ^ths Royal Socitty ^Literaturt, t^ths Newcastle Antiquariem Soeie^, ^the Royal Cambrian Institution, ^the Ashmolean Society at Oitford, and ^the Society /or the Stutfy ^Gothic Architecture : PeUont qfthe Society ^AnHqmarles : Corresponding Member if the Cotniti des Arts a Monuments, etc. etc





z88q H






Thb difficulties prorerbially attending the first essay in a literary design of any magnitade constitnte one of the very few apologies the public are generally ▼ming to concede an author for the imperfect execution of his undertaking. Perhaps no desideratum in our literature could be named which needs this indulgence more than a Dictionary of the Early English language, a work requiring such eztensiTC and yaried research, that the labours of a century would still leave much to be added and corrected, and one which has been too often abandoned by eminent antiquaries for failure to be conspicuous. It is now brought to a completion for the first time in the foUowiug pages, in some respects imperfectly, but comprising a variety of information nowhere else to be met with in a collective state, and forming at present the only compilation where a reader of the works of early English writers can reasonably hope to find explanations of many of the numerous terms which have become obsolete during the last four centuries.*

So far I may be permitted to speak without intrenching on the limits of rnitidsm. A work containing more than 50,000 words,f many of which have never appeared even in scattered glossaries, and illustrated, with very few exceptions, by original authorities, must contain valuable material for the philolo^ty even if disfigured by errors. With respect to the latter contingency, I am not acquainted with any glossary, comprising merely a few hundred worda^ vhich does not contain blunders, although in many instances the careful atten- tion of the editor has been specially directed to the task. Can I then anticipate that in a field, so vast that no single life would suffice for a minute examination of every object, I could have escaped proportionate liabilities 7 That such may be pointed out I have little doubt, notwithstanding the pains taken to prevent

* A GIoMarjr of Archaic and Provhicial 'WoitU was compiled about fifty yean ago by the Rev. Jonathan Boucher, Vicar of £p8om, but only a small portion, extending to Bla, has yet been published. The manuscript, which is in the custody of one of the editors of the work, I have not Men, but to jud(;e from ^hat has appeared, it probably contains much irrelevant matter. Mr. Toone has given us a small manual of early English words, 8vo. 1832. Nares' Glossary, published in 1822, is confined to the Elizabethan period, a Suable work, chiefiy compiled from the notes t? the Tariomm edition of Shakespeare.

t The exact number of words in this dictionary is 51,027.


their occurrence ; but it will be manifestly unfair to make them the test of merlt» or thence to pronounce a judgment on the accuracy of the whole. I may add that the greatest care has been taken to render the references and quotations accurate, and wbe.iever it waR practicable, they have been collated in type with the originals. The great importance of accurate references will be fully appre- ciated by the student who has experienced the inconvenience of the many inaccurate ones in the works of Nares, Gififord, and others.

The numerous quotations I have given from early manuscripts will generally be found to be literal copies from the originals, without any attempt at remedying the grammatical errors of the scribes, so frequent in manuscripts of the fifteenth century. The terminal contractions were then, in fact, rapidly vanishing as part of the grammatical construction of our language, and the representative of the vowel terminations of the Anglo-Saxon was lost before the end of that century. It is only within the last few years that this subject has been considered by our editors, and it is much to be regretted that the texts of Ritson, Weber, and others are therefore not always to b^ depended upon. For this reason I have had recourse in some cases to the original manuscripts in preference to using the printed texts, but, generally, the quotations from manuscripts have been taken from pieces not yet published. Some few have been printed during the time this work has been in the press, a period of more than two years.

In ascertaining the meaning of those early English words, which have been either improperly explained or have escaped the notice of our glossarists, I have chiefly had recourse to those grand sources of the language, Anglo-Saxon and Anglo- Norman. It appeared to me to be sufficient in such cases to indicate the imme- diate source of the word without referring to the original root, discarding in fact etymological research, except when it was necessary to develop the right explanation. Etymological disquisitions on provincial words have also been considered unnecessary ; but in some few instances, where there existed no r<)a- Bonable doubt, the root has been mentioned.

In explaining terms and phrases of the Elizabethan era, I have had the advantage not enjoyed in preparing that part of the work which relates to the earlier period, of referring to the labours of a predecessor in the same task. The Glossary of Archdeacon Nares has here necessarily in some respects been my guide, generally a faithful one as far as his explanations are concerned, but still very imperfect as a general glossary to the writers of that age. I have attempted to supply his deficiencies by more than trebling his collection of words and phrases, but my plan did not permit me to imitate his prolixity, and I have there- fore frequently stated results without explaining the reasoning or giving the reading which led to them. Nares' Glossary is however, notwithstanding its imperfections, a work of great merits and distinguished by the clearness and


diKrimiiiation with which the collections of the Shakespearian commentators are arranged and discussed. To find him occasionally in error merely illostrates the impossibility of perfection in philological studies.

Having had in view the wants of readers unskilled in early English rather than the literary entertainment of professed students, 1 have admitted numerous forms the etymologist will properly regard corrupt, and which might easily have been reduced to their original sources. I may have carried the system too far, bat to have excluded corruptions would certainly have rendered the work less generally useful ; and it is not to be presumed that every one who consults a manual of this kind will despise the assistance thus afforded. There are, too, many corruptions the sources of which are not readily perceivable even by the most experienced.

So many archaisms are undoubtedly still preserved by our rural population, that it was thought the incorporation of a glossary of provincialisms would render the work a more useful guide than one restricted to known archaisms. \nien Ray in 16/4 published the first collection of English localisms, he gives three reasons for having undertaken the task : " First, because I knew not of anything that hath been already done in this kind ; second, because I conceive they may be of some use to them who shall have occasion to travel the Northern counties, in helping them to understand the common language there ; third, because they may also afford some diversion to the curious, and give them occa- sion of making many considerable remarks." It is remarkable that Ray seems to have been unacquainted with the real value of provincial words, and most of his successors appear to have collected without the only sufficient reason for pre- serving them, the important assistance they continually afford in glossing the works of our early writers.

Observations on our provincial dialects as they now exist will be found in the following pages, but oinder the firm conviction that the history of provincialisms is of far inferior importance to the illustration they afford of our early language, I have not entered at length into a discussion of the former subject, I have spared no pains to collect provincial words from all parts of the country, and iiave been assisted by numerous correspondents, whose communications are care- I'dUy acknowledged under the several counties to which they refer. These com- munications have enabled me to add a vast quantity of words which had escaped the notice of all the compilers of provincial glossaries, but their arrangement added immeasurably to the labour. No one who has not tried the experiment can rightly estimate the trouble of arranging long lists of words, and separating mere dialectical forms.

The contributors of provincial words are elsewhere thanked, but it would hardly be right to omit the opportunity of enumerating the tnoi*e extensive com-


manications. I may, then, mention my obligationa to Captain Henry Smith, for his copious glossary of Isle of Wight provincialisms ; to the Rev. James Adcock, to whom I am principally indebted for Lincolnshire words ; to Goddard Johnson, Esq. for his valuable Norfolk glossary ; to Henry Nonis, Esq. for his important Somersetshire collection ; to David E. Davy, Esq. for his MS. additions to Forby ; to Major Moor, for his collections for a new edition of his Suffolk Words and Phrases ; and to the Rev. J. Staunton, for the use of the late Mr. Sharp's manuscript glossary of Warwickshire words. Most of the other communications have been of essential service, and I cannot call to mind one, however brief, which has not furnished me with useful information. My anonymous correspond- ents will be contented with a general acknowledgment ; but I have not ventured to adopt any part of their communications unsupported by other authority. My thanks are also returned to Mr. Toone, for MS. additions to his Glossary, chieilj consisting of notes on Massinger ; to Sir Henry Dryden, Bart., for a few notes on hunting terms in the earlier letters ; and to Mr. Chaffers, jun. for a brief glossary compiled a few years since from Chaucer, Lydgate, &c. But my chief obliga- tions are due to Thomas Wright, Esq. M.A., whose suggestions on nearly every sheet of this work, as it was passing through the press, have been of the greatest advantage, and whose profound knowledge of Anglo-Saxon and Anglo- Norman has frequently been of essential service when the ordinary guides had

been ineffectually consulted.


Drixton Hill, SuRRiY.

Fc6, li/, 1847. I


RoHXAT of Gloncester, after describing the Norman Conquest, thus alludes to tlie chaoga of iAngua^ introduced by that event :

And the Nonnaiu ne couthe ipeke tho bote her owe tpechet And tpeke French as dude atom, and here chyldren dude alto teche. So that hey men of thli lond. that of her blod come, Holdeth alle thulke speche that hil of hem nome. Vor bote a man couthe French, me tolth of hym wel lute, jte low men holdeth to Engljfee, and to her kundeepeehe fute, leh wene ther ne be man in world contreyes none* ThAt ne holdeth to her kundeipeche, bote Engekwd one. Ac wel me wot vor to conne bothe wel yt yi » Vor the more that a man con» the more worth he yi. This extract describes very correctly the general history of the languages current in England for the first two centuries after the battle of Hastings. Anglo-Norman was almost exclusively the lan- guage of the court, of the Norman gentry, and of literature. " The works in English which were written before the Wars of the Barons belong/' says Mr. Wright, ** to the last expiring remains of an older and totally different Anglo-Saxon style, or to the first attempts of a new English one formed upon a Norman model. Of the two grand monuments of the poetry of this period, Layamon belongs to the former of these classes, and the singular poem entitled the Ormuium to the latter. After the middle of the thirteenth century, the attempts at poetical composition in English became more frequent and more successful, and previous to the age of Chaucer we have several poems of a very remarkable character, and some good imitations of the harmony and spirit of the French ▼crsification of the time." After the Barons' Wars, the Anglo-Norman was gradually intermingled with the Anglo-Saxon, and no long time elapsed before the mongrel language, English, was in general use, formed, however, from the latter. A vrriter of the following century thus alleges his reason for writing in English x

In Engllt tonge y schal jow telle*

3yf 5e so long with me wyl dwelle i

Ne Lutyn wil y tpeke ne waste,

Bot Bnglisch that men uae« maste.

For that ys joure kynde langage.

That 56 hafe here moat of u«age :

That can eeh man untheretonde

That is hf»m in Rnglande t

Vox that langage ys most schewed,

Als wel roowe lereth as Wed.

Latyn also y trowe can nane,

Bot tho that hath hit of schole tane i

Sora can Frensch and no Latyne,

That useth has court and dud It iherlnne.

And som can of Latyn aparty,

That can Frensch ful febylly ;

And som untherstondith Engllsch,

That nother can Latyn ne Frensch.

Bot ierde, and iewde, old and ^onf,

JUa untheretendith KngliMch tonge.

Therfure y holde hit most siker thanne

To schewe the langage that ech man can {

And for iewethe men namely.

That can no more of clergy,

Tho ken tham where most nede.

For derkes can both se and rede

In diyers bokes of Holy Writt,

How they schul ly ve, yf thay loke hit t

Thsffeforc y wyllc me holly halde

Tr> that langage that Englisch ys calde. MS, Sodl, 4B, f. 4*.


The ar.thor of the Cursor Mundi thought each nation should he contented with one UnTuggB, and that tbe English should discard the Anglo-Norman :

Tliit ilk bok it e% translate

Into IngUs tong to rede.

For the love of Inglis ledc,

IngUs lede of Ingland,

For the commun at understand.

Frankis rimes here I redd

Comunlik in ilk sted.

Mast es it wroght for Frankis man,

Ijuat is Jbr Mm na PrankU can T

Of Ingland the nacion

Ks Inglisman thar in commun ;

Thetpeche that man wit mast may spede»

Matt thar wit to speke war nede.

Selden toas far uni chance

Praited Inglit tong in Francs '

Givs ujti ilkan thare langage.

Me think we do tham nan outrage,

MS. Cott, respas, A. iii. f. 2.

In the curious tale of King Edward and the Shepherd, the latter is descnhed as heuifl: perfectly astonished with the French and Latin of the court :

The lordis anon to chawmbur went. The kyng aftur the acheperde sent.

He was bro5t forth tulle sone ; He clawed his bed, his hare he rent. He wende wel to have be schent.

He ne wytt what was to done. When he French and Latyn herde. He hade niervelle how it ferdc,

And drow hym ever alone : Jhesu, he teid, for thi gret grace. Bryng me fayre out of this place !

Lady, now here my bone !

MS. Cantab. Ft. v. 48, f. £5.

In the fifteenth century, English may he said to have been the general language of this coun- try.* At this period, too, what is now called old English, rapidly lost its grammatical forms, aud the English of the time of Henry VIII., orthography excepted, differs very little from that of tbe present day. A few archaisms now obsolete, and old phrases, constitute the essential differences.

Our present subject is the provincial dialects, to which these very brief remarks on the general history of the English language are merely preliminary, a subject of great <lifficulty, and one which requires far more reading than has yet been attempted to develop satisfactorily, especially in its early period. Believing that the principal use of the study of the English dialects consists in the explanation of archaisms, I have not attempted that research which would be necessary to understand their history, albeit this latter is by no means an unimportant inquiry. The Anglo- Saxon dialects were not numerous, as far as can be judged from the MSS. in that language which have been preserved, and it seems probable that most of our English dialects might be traced historically and etymologicaUy to the original tribes of the Saxons, Angles, and Jutes, not forget- ting the Danes, whose language, according to Wallingford, so long influenced the dialect of Yorkshire. In order to accomplish this we require many more early documents which bear upon the subject than have yet been discovered, and the uncertainty which occurs in most cases of fixing the exact locality in which they were written adds to our difficulties. When we come to a later period, the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, there being no standard literary form of our native language, every MS. sufficiently exhibits its dialect, and it is to be hoped that all English works of this period may one day be classed according to their dialects. In such an undertaking, great assistance will be derived from a knowledge of our local dialects as they now exist. Hence the value of specimens of modern provincial language, for in many instances, as in Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle, compared with the present dialect of Gloucestershire, the organic forms of the dialect have remained unchanged for centuries. The Ayenbyte of Inwyt is, perhaps, the most remarkable specimen of early English MSS. written in a broad dialect, and it proves very satisfac- torily that in the fourteenth century the principal features of what is termed the Western dialect were those also of the Kentish dialect. There can be, in fact, little doubt that the former was

* Anne, Countess of Stafibrd, thutwritet In 1438, 1 «'ordeyne and make my tesument in English toqgefoc •xiv moiil prof t. icdyng, and undcrstandyng in thiswise."



hog cimtnt throughout the Southern counties, and even extended in some degree as far as Essex.* U we judge ttom the specimens of early English of which the localities of composition are known, we might perhaps divide the dialects of the fourteenth century into three grand classes, the Northern, the Midland, and the Southern, the last heing that nowr retained in the Western coun- ties. But, with the few materials yet published, I set little reliance on any classification of the kind. If we may decide from Mr. Wright's Specimens of Lyric Poetry, which were written in Herefordshire, or from Audelay's Poems, written in Shropshire in the fifteenth century, those counties would belong to the Midland division, rather than to the West or South.

The few writers who have entered on the subject of the early English provincial dialects, have sdvocated their theories without a due consideration of the probability, in many cases the cer- tainty, of an essential distinction between the language of literature and that of the natives of a county. Hence arises a fallacy which has led to curious anomalies. We are not to suppose, merely because we find an early MS. written in any county in standard English, that that MS. is a correct criterion of the dialect of the county. There are several MSS. written in Kent of about the same date as the Ayenby te of Inwyt, which have none of the dialectical marks of that curious work. Most of the quotations here given from early MSS. must be taken with a similar limita- tion as to their dialect. Hence the difficulty, from want of authentic specimens, of forming a classification, which has led to an alphabetical arrangement of the counties in the following brief notices:

BEDFORDSHIRE. The dialect of this county has been fully in- vestigated in Batchelor's Orthoepical Analysis of the English Language, 8vo. 1809. fir takes the place of ow, ea of a, oir of the long o, oi of i, &C. When r precedes a and e final, or a and other consonants, it is frequently not pro- nounced. Ow final is often changed into er ; ge final, into dge; and g final is sometimes omitted.

BERKSHIRE. The Berkshire dialect partly belongs to the Western, and partly to the Midland, more strongly marked with the features of the former in the South- West of the county. The a is changed into o, the diphthongs are pronounced broadly, and the vowels are lengthened. Way is pronounced teoye; thik and thak for this and that ; he for him, and ahe for her.

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. The language of the peasantry is not very broad, although many dialectical words are in general use. A list of the latter was kindly for- warded to me by Dr. Hussey.

CAMBRIDGESHIRE. There is little to distinguish the Cambridge^ ihu« dialect from that of the adjoining counties. It is nearly allied to that of Norfolk and Suffolk. Tlie perfect tense is formed strongly, as hit, hot, is/, sot, tpare, spore, e. g. "if I am spore," le. spared, &c. I have to return my thanks to

the Rev. J. J. Smith and the Rev. Charles Warren for brief lists of provincialisms current in this county.

CHESHIRE. The Cheshire dialect changes / into tr, ul into w or 00, i into oi or ee, o into «, a into o, o into a, u into i , ea into yo, and oa into wo. Mr. Wilbraham bos published a very useful and cor- rect glossary of Cheshire words. Second ed. 12mo. 1836.

Extract from a Speech ofJtidaa Jscariot in tlie Play of ChriaVa Entry into Jeruaalem.

By dearc God In mngUtle !

I am so wroth as 4 maye bc»

And some waye I will wrecken me.

As sone as ever 1 male.

My mayftter Jesus, as men mayesee.

Was rubbed heade, foote, and kn}e.

With oyntmeute of more diiliUic

Then I see manye a dale.

To that I have greate envye.

That he suffVcd to destroye

More then all his pood thrye.

And his dames tuwe.

Hade I of it hade maisterye,

I woulde have souldc It sone in hie«

And put It up in tresuerye.

As I was wonte to doe.

Whatsoever wes gcvcn to Jmu,

1 have kepte, since 1 hym knewc ,

For he hopes I wilbo trewc.

His purse allwaie I bare.

Hym hade bene better, in gootl faye,

Hade spared oyntmente that daic.

* This Is slated on sufficiently ample authority, but Verstegan appears to limit It In his time to the Western coaatks, ** We see tliat in some severall parts of England itselfe, both the names of things, and prnnuntia- tions of words, are somewhat different, and that among the country people that never borrow any words out of the Latin or French, and of this different pronuntlation one example in steed of many shal suffice, as this ; for pTonouDcing according as one would say at London, / would tat more cheese {/ I had </, the Northern man saith, jfy rad eat tnare rheeee gin ay hadet, and the Weste^ne man saith, Chud eat more cheeee an chad it» Ln hecre three different pronountiatlons in our owne cpuntry in one thing, and hereof many the like cxamplci might be allcaged.**^ rer*(e^n'« Rettitution, 1634, p. 196.



For wrocken I wllbeiome wtle

or waste that was done their ;

Three hundreth penny worthes it was

That he let spill in that place ;

Therefore Ood geve me harde grace*

But hymselfe shalbe soulde

To the Jewes, or that I sitte.

For the tenth pcnye of it t

And this my malster shalbe quite

My ffreffe a hundreth foulde.

Chester Pia^e, il. 19.


It is almost unnecessary to observe, that the ancient Cornish language has long been obso- lete. It appears to have been gradually disused from the time of Henry VIII.i but it was spoken in some parts of the country till the eighteenth century. Modem Cornish is now an English dialect, and a specimen of it is here given. Polwhele has recorded a valuable list of Cornish provincialisms, and a new glossary has recently been published, in ' Specimens of Cornish Pro- vincial Dialect,' 8vo. 1846. In addition to these, I have to acknowledge several words, hitherto unnoticed, communicated by Miss Hicks, and R.T. Smith, Esq.

Harrison, Description of Britaine, p. 14, thus mentions the Cornish language : " The Cornish and Devonshire men, whose countrie the Britons call Cemiw, have a speach in like sort of their owne, and such as hath in deed more aiBnitie with the Armoricane toong than I can well dis- cusse of. Yet in mine opinion, they are both but a corrupted kind of British, albeit so far de- generating in these dales from the old, that if either of them doo meete with a Welshman, they are not able at the first to understand one an- other, except here and there in some od words, without the helpe of interpretors."

In Comwal, Pembr. and Devon they for to milk •ay milky, for to squint, to squinny, this, thicky, &e., and after most Terbt ending with consonants they clap a y, but more commonly the lower part of Pembrokeshire.

Lhu^s M8. jiddltiotu to Ray, AOtm, Mtu

(1) The Cornwall Schoolboy. An ould man found, one day, a yung gentleman's portmantle, as he were a going to es dennar; he took*d et en and gived et to es wife, and said, " Mally, here's a roul of lither, look, see, 1 suppoase some poor ould shoemaker or other have los'en, tak'en and put'en a top of the teaster of tha bed, he'll be glad to hab'en agen sum day, I dear say." The ould man, Jan, that was es neame, went to es work as before. Mally then open'd the portmantle. and found en et three hunderd pounds. Soon after thcs, the ould man not being very well, Mally said, " Jan, I'ave saaved away a little money, by the bye, and as thee caan't read or write, thee shu'st go to •oool*' (he were then nigh threescore and ten). He •rent but a very short time, and comed hoam one flay, aod said, « Mally, I wain'tgn to icool no more, caaae the childer do be laflfen at me s they can tell 4ieir letters, and I caan't tell my A, B, C,'and I «ud rayther go to work agen.** ** Do as thee wool," ses Mally. Jin had not ben out many days, afore the yung gentleman came by that lost the port- naatle, and said, Well, my ould man, did'ee see

or hear tell of slch a thing at a portmantle ?*' " Poet- mantle, sar, was't that un, surothlng like thickey? (pointing to one behind es saddle.) I found one the f other day sackly like that." " Where es et ?'* ** Come along, I carr'd'en en and gov'en to my wife Mally ; thee sha't av'en. Mally, where es that roul of litlier that I giv'd tha the t'other day r •« What roul of lither >" said Mally. '• The roul of lither I broft en and tould tha to put'en a top of the teaster of the bed, afore I go'd to scool/' ** Drat tha tm^ ranee,** said the gentleman, ** thee art betwattled, that was before I were bom.**

(2) A Western Eehgue. Pengroute, a lad In many a science blest, OuUhone his toning brothers of the west : Of smugling, hurling, wrestling much he knew. And much of tin, and much of pilchards too. Fam'd at each village, town, and country-house, Menacken, Helstone, Polklnhome, and Groure s Trespissen, Buddodi, Cony-yerle, Treverry, Polbastard, Hallabaisack, Eglesderry, Pencob, and RestiJ^. Treviskey, Breague, Irewinnlck, Buskenwyn, Busveal, Roscreague : But what avail'd his fame and various art. Since he, by love, was smitten to the heart ? The shaft a beam of Bet Polglaae's eyes ; And now he dumpUn loaths, and pilchard pies. Young was the lass, a servant at St. Tisay, Born at Polpiss, and bred at Mevagixzy. Calm o'er the mountain blush*d the rising day. And tiug'd the summit with a purple ray. When sleepless Arom his hutch the lover stole. And met, by chance, the mistress of his soul. And - Whither go'st r he scratched bis skull mi

cry'd; *' Arrear, God bless us,** well the nymph reply'd« •* To Yealston sure, to buy a pound o' badiy* That us and measter wonderfully lacky ; ' God bless us ale, this fortnight, 'pon my word. We nothing smoaks but oak leaves and cue-terd.*

Pengroute, Arrear then, Oeuy, ly aloane the backy. Sty here a tiny bit and let us talky, Bessy, I loves thee, wot a ha me, say. Wot ha Pengrottie, why wot a, Bessy, hm ?

Bet Polgtaxe. Ah, hunkln, hunkin, mind at Moushole fair What did you at the Choughs, the alehouse there * When you stows eighteen pence in cakes and beer, To treat that dirty trollup. Mall Rosevear : You stutTs It in her gills, and makes such pucker, Arrear the people thoft you wld have choack her.

Pengrvuze. Curse Mall Rosevear, I says, a great Jack whore, 1 ne'er sees such a dirty drab before : I stuffs her gills with cakes and beer, the hunk. She stuffs herself, she meslin and got drunk. Best* drink sure for her Jaws wan't good enow. So leckert makes her drunk as David's sow ; Her feace is like a bull's, and 'tis a fooel. Her legs are like the legs o' coblefs stooel ; Her eyes be grean's a llck,t *• yaiTers big, Noase flat*s my bond, and neck so black's a pig.

fief Potgkue, Ay, but I've more to say ; this isn't ale. You deanc*d wy Mall Rosevear 't aNartIn bale: She toald me so, and lefts me wy a sneare Ay 1 you, PengTOUie, did deance wy Mali Rosevear.

Best drink implies strong beer. f Brandy. X Green as a leek.



Pmgrouza, Now, Betty, hire me, Beuy, vath and soale. Hiie me, I aaya. and thou ihat hire the who&le ; Oneaifht,a Wensday ntght, I vows to Goade, Aloaae, a honback, to Trctouie I roade ; Sarc Boiy vath, diat hire me. 'ili no Ilea, A d— madarbale was never seed wy eyea. 1 him turn missick at an oald bcarne doore. And hires a wcmdrous rousing on the floore ; So in I popa my Itead ; says I, arreare ! . Why, what a devil's nearoe is doing heare ? Why datttdnf cries the crowder by the wale, Whydeanclnf. deaaclng, measur— 'tis a bale. Deaaeing, says 1, by Gam I hires sum prcancers. Bat tdl ua where the devii be the deanccrs ; For tf the duatand strawae so fleed about. I eould not, Betsy, spy the hoppers out. At lute I spies Roaevear. I wish her dead, Wbomeafces medeanceall nite. the stinliing Jade. Says I. I have no ahoose to kick a foote : Why kick, saya llall Roievear, then kick thy boote. And. Bet, diet hire me. for to leert us ale, A farthing candle wink'd again the wale.

Bet PotgiasM. Ah, honkln, hunkin, I am huge aftraid That you la laughing at a simple maid.

Prngrotiee. Dcare, dearest Bet. let's hug thee to my hearte. And may na never never never pearte ! NOf if V lir« than, Betsy, than I wishes The Shackleheadt may never dose the ikhes : That picky dogs may eat the sceane when fule, Cafn to rags, and let go ale the schule.

Bet Pblflate. Then boe't my bond, and wy it teake my hearte.

PengroMse* (ioadeblesa us too, and here is mines, ods hearte > One boss, and then to Pilcharding I'll imcky.

Bel PoJglase. Aad I to Yealttooe for my matter't backy.

(3) ji Comuh Song. Ctnae, all ye Jolly Tinner boyt. and WUen to mc ; V\\ tell ee of a ttorie ahali malte ye for to see, Coostming Boney Peartie, the schaamcs which he had

maade To stop our tin and copper mine*, and all our pilchard

traade. He summonsed forty thoutand men, \o Tolland they

didgoa* All for to rob and plunder there you very well do

knawa; Bat (M»-thon-«afHf were killed, and laade dead in blood

and goare. And thirty thoutand ranned away, and I cante tell

where, I'm aure. And should that Boney Peartic have forty thoutand still To maake into an army to work his wicked will. Aad try for to Invaade ut. If he doent quickly fly- Why, forty thoutand Comlth boys shall knawa the

reasoawhy. Hnxeafor tin and copper, boys, and fishcrlet likewise ! Bana for Cornish maadent— oh. bleu their pretty

eyea! Hneafor our ould gentrie. and may they never (hale ! Hoiei, hwrca for Cornwall t hurea. boyt, <* one and


CUMBERLAND. The (lialecUof Cumberland, Westmoreland, Moi^finiberlandy and Dorham may be consi-

dered to be Identical in ad essential peculiari- ties, the chief differences arising from the mode of pronunciation. According to Boucher, the dialect of Cumberland is much less uniform than that of Westmoreland. In Cumberland, too is in frequent use instead of the long o, as will be noticed in the following example. A glossary of Cumberland words was kindly forwarded to m* by Mr. Thomas Sanderson.

(1) Love in Cumberland, Tkin«.—«' Cuddle me. Cuddy."

Wa, Jwohn, whai'n mannlshment't 'tis

'At ton's gawn to dee for a hiny ! Aw hard o' this torrable fiss.

An' aw's cum't to advise tha*. 'at is ee.

Ifun. thou'Il nob)>etIwose teegud neame Wi' gowlin an* whingtn sea mlckte;

Cockswunturs I min l>eyde atmul heame. An' let her e'en ga to auld Nickle.

Thy plew-geer's aw liggin how-strow. An' somebody's stown thee thy couter ;

Oh faiks ! thou't dutn little 'at dow To fash theetel Ivver about her.

Vour Seymey has broken car stang.

An' mendlt it wid a clog-coaker ; Pump-tree's geane aw wheyt wrang.

An' they've sent for auld Tom Stawkcr

Young filly'i Jur- '»»it» the lane »tee, An' leam'd peer Andrew the theeker ;

Thee mudder wad sufDer't for tee, An haw hadn't happ'n't to cleek her.

Thou't spoilt for aw manner o' wark !

Thou nobbet sits peghan an' pleenan. Odswttcke. man ! doff that durty sark,

An' pretha gi'e way git a clean an t

An* then gow to Carel wi* me,—

Let her gang to knock-cross wid her scworaiB» Sec danken at market we'll see.

A'll up'od ta* forgit her 'or rawornin' I

(2) Song, by Min Blamire. What ails thit heart & mine ?

What meant thb wat'ry e'e ? What gart me ay turn pale at death

When I Uk' leave o' thee ?

When thou art far awa*.

I'hou'li dearer be to me ; But change o' place, and change o^ ft Ittg

May gar thy fancy Jee.

When I tit down at e'en.

Or walk in morning air, Ilk rustling bough will seem to fay,

I us'd to meet thee there :

Then I'll sit down and wail.

And greet aneath a tree. And gin a leaf fa' i' my lap. I's ca't a word frae thee.

I'll hie me to the bow'r

Where yews wi* rosea tred, And where, wi' monle a blushing bud.

I strove my face to hide i

I'll doat on Ilka spot.

Where I ha'e been wi' thee. A nd ca' to mind tome kindly look

'Neath Uka hollow tree.

Wi' tec thoughtt i' my mind. Time thro* the warl may gae. And find nie ttill, in twenty yeara^ The tame at I'm to-day i




'T'.i friendship bean the sway, tknd keeps friends i' the e'c ; And gin I think I lee the still, Wha can part thcc and me ?

DERBYSHIRE. " Tliis dialect," observes Dr. Bosworth, " is Feinarkable for its broad pronunciation, vin me the e is pronounced long and broad, as tnee. The / is often omitted after a or o, as aw for all, cato, call, bowdt bold, coudt cold. Words in in^ generally omit the^, but sometimes it Is changed into At; as think for thing, lovin for loving. They use con for can ; Conner for cannot ; shanner for shall not ; wool, wooner for will, and will not ; yo for you, &c.*' Lists of provincial words pe- culiar to this county have been kindly forwarded by Dr. Bosworth, Thomas Bateman, Esq., the Rev. Samuel Fox, the Rev. William Shilleto, Mrs. Butler, and L. Jewitt, Esq.

A Dialogue between Farmer Bennet and Tummus


Farmer Bennet, Tummus, vtfhy dunner yo mend mch shoom ?

TummxtelMe* Becoi. mester, 'tis aocood, I Con- ner work wee the tachin at aw. I've briicku it ten times I'm shur to dc— it freeses so hard. Why, Hester hung out a smock-frock to dry. an in three minits it wor frozzen as stiff as a proker, an I Con- ner aflbrd to keep a good fire ; I wish I cud. I'd soon mend yore shoon, an uthers tow. Td soon yarn sum munney, I warrant ye. Conner yo find sum work for m*, mester, these hard limes 7 Til doo onnythink to addle a penny. I con thresh— I con split wood I con mak spars— I con thack. I con skower a dike, an I con trench tow, but it freezes zo hard. I eon winner I con fother, or milk, If there 1)6 need on't. I woodner mind drivin plowor onnythink.

Farmer B. I hanner got nothin for ye to doo, Tummus: but Mester Boord towd me Jist now that they wor gooin to winner, an that they shud want lumbody to help 'em.

TitmmufL. O, I'm glad on't. I'll run oor an zee whethsr I con help 'em ; bur I hanner bin weeln the thresliolil nv Mester Boord's doer for a nation time, becoz I tlioot mis«cs didner use l-Icster well ; bur 1 dunner bear malice, an zo I'll goo.

Farmer B. What did Misses Boord sa or doo to Hester then ?

Tummua L. Why, Heater may be wor summut to blame too; for her wor one on *em, deye zee, that Jawd Skimmerton, the mak -gam that f runted zum o'thc gentefook. They said 'twor time to dun wee sich litter, or sich stuff, or I dunner know what they cawd it: but they wor frunted wee Hester bout it: an I said, if they wor frunted wee Hester, they mid bee frunted wee mee. This set misscs's back up, an Hester hanner bin a charrin there sin. But 'tis no use lo boar malice : an zo I'll goo oor, and zee which we the winde blows.

BoBWOfth's Anglo-Saxon Dictionary ^ Introd. p. 31 .

DEVONSHIRE. The MS; Ashmole 33 contains an early ro- mance, written about the year 1377, which appears to have been composed by a clergyman